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Glossary M-Q

From M for marketplace to Q, including P for pull principle. Here you will find explanations of further selected terms.




A marketplace is a mechanism for the marketing and exchange of goods and services. All processes of interaction between those who are involved on the market are supported or automated by an electronic system.

mass customizing

By contrast with classic mass production, which produces one and the same product in large quantities, mass customizing means the production of a great many individualized products. The basis for this is usually a sophisticated model-building approach.


Mobile trade. Support of business processes by mobile internet technology.

metallurgical raw materials

Metals and alloys obtained by the smelting of ores containing metals, e.g. non-phosphorous pig iron, ferrous sulphide.

Modal Split

Refers to the share (in terms of tonnage / ton kilometers) of the individual carriers (road, rail, ship) in the total volume of transport within or between regions (equivalent to the market share of the different carriers).

multimodal transport

Freight transport involving several modes of transport (e.g. truck, plane, ship). The assembled shipment is carried right through without change of content (multimodal = intermodal = cross-carrier).


Abbreviation for 'non-federally-owned railroads'. Besides Deutsche Bahn AG there are a large number of such rail companies in the Federal Republic (also known as 'private railroads').

noise reduction     

Reduction of noise through active measures (e.g. noise protection barriers) and passive measures (e.g. sound-insulated windows) or measures at the source (e.g. modern braking systems).

Operator (integrator)

Entity that takes on, as a marketing company, the complete organization and handling of complete transport orders, from the consignor through to the recipient. The associated services are purchased by the operator from third parties (e.g. collection of goods by truck, main leg of journey by rail or distribution of goods by truck).


Transfer to a third party of certain sub-areas of activity which do not form part of the core competence of a commercial enterprise.

parent station

Manned rail freight station which arranges goods handling business deals for other (generally unmanned) rail freight stations.

private freight car ownerCompanies that hire out freight cars on a commercial basis for rail freight transport. Private freight car owners are particularly active in connection with special freight cars like rail tankers.
piggyback transport

Transport of complete trucks, truck trailers or swap bodies by rail.


Expression for a website which is to be used as a starting page for users connecting to the internet. There are general portals as well as specialized or niche portals. Typical services offered by a portal are lists of links, search engines, news bulletins, weather information, e-mail accounts, stock market prices and so on.


Feeder conveyance of goods to the dispatching rail station by truck (or by rail in the case of other European countries), including transshipment of the goods from the truck onto the freight car.


Prefabrication of supplied components to a customer-specific format.

private siding

Direct connection from the rail network to the company. Makes it possible for goods to be loaded onto the train directly from the production plant or warehouse.

pull principle

Under the pull principle, products are no longer configured by a company and 'pushed' on the consumer (that is the 'push principle'); instead, the customer is involved in production from the start, and so 'pulls' to himself the product that he requires.